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Bibliography of Research and Readings
NCATE (2010). Transforming teacher education through clinical practice: A national survey to prepare effective teachers. "The National Research Council recently identified clinical preparation as one of the three aspects of teacher preparation that are likely to have the highest potential for effects on outcomes for students along with content knowledge and quality of candidate teachers."
Ball, A. (2009). Toward a theory of generative change in culturally and linguistically complex classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 46(1), 45-72. "I use the term generativity to refer to the teachers’ ability to continually add to their understanding by connecting their personal and professional knowledge with the knowledge that they gain from their students to produce or originate knowledge that is useful to them in pedagogical problem solving and in meeting the educational needs of their students. According to Franke, Carpenter, Levi, and Fennema (2001), “when individuals learn with understanding, they can apply their knowledge to learn new topics and solve new and unfamiliar problems. Knowledge becomes generative when the learner sees the need to integrate new knowledge with existing knowledge and continually reconsiders existing knowledge in light of the new knowledge that they are learning."
City, E. A., Elmore, R. F., Fiarman, S. E., & Teitel, L. (2009). Instructional rounds in education. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Education Press.
Darling-Hammongd, L. & Hammerness, K. (2005). The design of teacher education programs. In L. Darling-Hammond & John Bransford (Eds.), Preparing teachers for a changing world: What teachers should learn and be able to do (pp. 390-441). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. By exploring pedagogies designed to develop an assortment of skills in prospective teachers, this article aims to communicate significant factors pertaining to and strategies assisting with teacher education program development. Seeking to move forward from disjunctive curriculums to more “integrated, coherent programs,” teacher education programs must have a framework combining and relating theory in coursework with practice in fieldwork, hence reinforcing key ideas via repetition and resulting in a deeper understanding and richer learning experience. According to Darling-Hammond and Hammerness, the content, learning process, and learning context are all significant factors in the design of a teacher education program. Prospective teachers must learn how to work with a diverse population of students—pertaining to students with various levels of English proficiency, with distinct cultural backgrounds, and with special needs— and how to evaluate and meet the unique needs of this population via the development of analytical skills and hands-on experience. The curriculum of their coursework must be arranged in order that it will provide an understanding of the fundamental ideas through illustration and explanation, and clinical experiences must begin early and continue throughout the program in order that the student teacher may comprehend and appreciate how these ideas are related. In addition to “learning in practice,” prospective teachers must also “learn from teaching” by investigating materials from classrooms and communicating with the professional community.
Feiman-Nemser, S (2001). From preparation to practice: Designing a continuum to strengthen and sustain teaching. Teachers College Record, 103(6), 1013-1055. "Placing serious and sustained teacher learning at the center of school reform is a radical idea. It challenges dominant views of teaching and learning to teach. I calls for a major overhaul in provisions for teacher preparation, induction, and continuing development. It requires capacity building at all levels of the system. No one should underestimate the depth or scope of the agenda. As Fullan, Galluzzo, Morris, and Watson (1998) contend, 'We are dealing with a reform proposition so profound that the teacher profession itself, along with the culture of schools and schools of education, will have to undergo total transformation in order for substantial progress to be made." Feiman-Nemser discusses the central tasks of the three stages of teacher education programs—preservice preparation, induction, and professional development --and the difficulties with conventional curriculum arrangements in order to propose examples for more promising, cohesive and reform-minded programs. By implementing these unconventional practices provided by the author, the three stages of teacher development can work together to support and enhance teacher education. During the stage of preservice preparation, Feiman-Nemser asserts that the central tasks include the transformation of ideas and experiences, the acquisition of subject matter and child development knowledge, and the development of a professional identity. Conventional programs lack the cohesion between coursework and fieldwork to accomplish these tasks. Instead, student teachers need opportunities to link theory and practice. Feiman-Nemser calls for integrated field experiences where students can test knowledge gained in the classroom over an extended period of time and through a sequence of diverse placements. Additionally, attention must be given to teachers as learners through ongoing personal and professional reflection and assessments. This can be achieved through the support of an advisor whom assists the student with relating the “text” of the program to the “context” of the classroom.
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